Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916. The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russia’s allies Britain and France launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, with the aim of capturing the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul). The naval attack was repelled and after eight months’ fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt.

The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation’s history: a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey eight years later under Mustafa Kemal (Kemal Atatürk), who first rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli. The campaign is often considered as marking the birth of national consciousness in Australia and New Zealand and the date of the landing, 25 April, is known as “Anzac Day”, which is the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in those two countries, surpassing Remembrance Day (Armistice Day).

Synonyms:
Gallipoli
Gallipoli_Campaign (Wikipedia)
Gallipoli Campaign
Part of the Middle Eastern theatre of the First World War
G.C. 18 March 1915 Gallipoli Campaign Article.jpg
A collection of photographs from the campaign. From top and left to right: Ottoman commanders including Mustafa Kemal (fourth from left); Allied warships; the view down to Anzac Cove; Ottoman soldiers in a trench; and Allied positions.
Date 25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916
(8 months, 2 weeks and 1 day)
Location Gallipoli Peninsula, Sanjak of Gelibolu, Adrianople Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
Result Ottoman victory
Belligerents

 British Empire

 France

 Russian Empire

 Ottoman Empire
Supported by

 German Empire
 Austria-Hungary
Commanders and leaders
Units involved
United Kingdom Mediterranean Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Labour Corps
Maltese Labour Corps
Oriental Expeditionary Corps
Ottoman Empire 5th Army
Strength

5 divisions (initial)
15 divisions (final)
Total: 489,000

  • 345,000 British (including Indians, Irish and Newfoundlanders)
  • 79,000 French
  • c. 50,000 Australians
  • c. 15,000 New Zealanders

Supported by

c. 2,000 civilian labourers

6 divisions (initial)
16 divisions (final)

Total: 315,500
Casualties and losses

United Kingdom British Empire:
160,790 battle casualties
3,778+ died of disease
90,000 evacuated sick
France French Empire:
27,169 battle casualties
deaths from disease: unknown
20,000 evacuated sick


Total: 302,000 casualties

Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire:
56,643 killed
97,007 wounded or injured
11,178 missing or PoW
64,440 evacuated sick
21,000 died of disease


Total: 250,000 casualties

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916. The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russia's allies Britain and France launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, with the aim of capturing the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul). The naval attack was repelled and after eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt.

The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation's history: a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey eight years later with Mustafa Kemal (Kemal Atatürk) as President, who rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli. The campaign is often considered as marking the birth of national consciousness in Australia and New Zealand and the date of the landing, 25 April, is known as "Anzac Day", which is the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in those two countries, surpassing Remembrance Day (Armistice Day).

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