Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky (7 November [O.S. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940) was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, and a Soviet politician who engineered the transfer of all political power to the Soviets. Trotsky initially supported the Menshevik Internationalists faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. He joined the Bolsheviks just before the 1917 October Revolution, and immediately became a leader within the Communist Party. He was, alongside Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Stalin, Sokolnikov and Bubnov, one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 to manage the Bolshevik Revolution. During the early days of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and the Soviet Union, he served first as People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army, with the title of People’s Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs. He was a major figure in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War (1918–1923).

After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and against the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was removed from power (October 1927), expelled from the Communist Party (November 1927), exiled to Alma–Ata (January 1928), and exiled from the Soviet Union (February 1929). As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union from exile. On Stalin’s orders, he was assassinated in Mexico in August 1940 by Ramón Mercader, a Spanish-born Soviet agent.

Trotsky’s ideas formed the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that opposes the theories of Stalinism. He was written out of the history books under Stalin, and was one of the few Soviet political figures who was not rehabilitated by the government under Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s. It was not until the late 1980s that his books were released for publication in the Soviet Union, which dissolved a short time later.

Synonyms:
Trotsky
Leon_Trotsky (Wikipedia)
Leon Trotsky
Lev Trotsky.jpg
Trotsky in 1921
People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs of the Soviet Union
In office
13 March 1918 – 15 January 1925
Premier Vladimir Lenin
Alexei Rykov
Preceded by Nikolai Podvoisky
Succeeded by Mikhail Frunze
People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR
In office
8 November 1917 – 13 March 1918
Premier Vladimir Lenin
Preceded by Mikhail Tereshchenko
Succeeded by Georgy Chicherin
President of the Petrograd Soviet
In office
8 October – 8 November 1917
Full member of the 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th Politburo
In office
10 October 1917 – 23 October 1926
Personal details
Born Lev Davidovich Bronstein
(1879-11-07)7 November 1879
near Yelizavetgrad, Kherson Governorate, Russian Empire (now in Ukraine)
Died 21 August 1940(1940-08-21) (aged 60)
Coyoacán, Mexico City, Mexico
Cause of death Assassination
Citizenship Soviet
Political party RSDLP
SDPS
Mezhraiontsy
CPSU
Fourth International
Spouse(s) Aleksandra Sokolovskaya
Natalia Sedova
Children Zinaida Volkova
Nina Nevelson
Lev Sedov
Sergei Sedov
Signature

Leon Trotsky (/ˈtrɒtski/;Russian: Лев Дави́дович Тро́цкий; pronounced [ˈlʲɛf ˈtrotskʲɪj]; born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; 7 November [O.S. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940) was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, and a Soviet politician who engineered the transfer of all political power to the Soviets. Trotsky initially supported the Menshevik Internationalists faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. He joined the Bolsheviks just before the 1917 October Revolution, and immediately became a leader within the Communist Party. He was, alongside Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Stalin, Sokolnikov and Bubnov, one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 to manage the Bolshevik Revolution. During the early days of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army, with the title of People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs. He was a major figure in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War (1918–1923).

After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and against the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was removed from power (October 1927), expelled from the Communist Party (November 1927), exiled to Alma–Ata (January 1928), and exiled from the Soviet Union (February 1929). As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union from exile. On Stalin's orders, he was assassinated in Mexico in August 1940 by Ramón Mercader, a Spanish-born Soviet agent.

Trotsky's ideas formed the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that opposes the theories of Stalinism. He was written out of the history books under Stalin, and was one of the few Soviet political figures who was not rehabilitated by the government under Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s. It was not until the late 1980s that his books were released for publication in the Soviet Union, which dissolved a short time later.

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